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WHAT IS INNOVATION IN MUSIC?

WHY IS MUSICAL INNOVATION IMPORTANT?

NOTE: DO NOT FORGET TO SEE THE VIDEO CLIP ABOUT HAYDN AND THE TOY SYMPHONY, BY CLICKING ON THE IMAGE ABOVE THIS TEXT


INNOVATION IN MUSIC

Innovation in music is any change in musical structure, texture, quality, style etc.

It’s often influenced by technological innovations that lie behind the music, but the question is: What would technological innovation be like in the 18th century?


In the 18th century, innovations were based on musical formats that were gradually being improved, as happened with Franz Joseph Haydn when he created the form of the sonata in four movements, an innovation that had an impact on the format of classical symphonies.


The changes in the 18th century resulted in the era of "Classical Music", ending the period of baroque music, led in the 17th century by Bach and Handel, just to mention the most representative ones.


It is a fact that musical changes and their innovations are driven by the creativity of the composers and by the changing tastes between the musicians and the public, therefore, I dare to say that music is a living culture, a dialogue between participants in culture.

If there were no musical innovation, today's music would sound like centuries past.


HAYDN FATHER OF SYMPHONY

When asked why I admire Franz Joseph Haydn Koller, Beethoven's words about his Master immediately come to mind: "Such a genius never existed and probably will never be surpassed."




It must be taken into account that Haydn was a teacher of Mozart and Beethoven; in the picture above, we can see Haydn teaching to Beethoven.


Also, I admire him because Haydn was a great Innovator in his time (18th century), since he was the first and the last classic; In addition to the above, he was the creator of the sonata and symphony format.


BUT LET'S GO IN PARTS:

1) Not all "old" music is classical

The misnamed classical music corresponds to a period within the eighteenth century. The history of music (depending on musicologists), includes the following periods:

  1. Music in Prehistory (50,000 BC -5000 BC)

  2. Ancient music (5000 BC - AD 476)

  3. Music of the Middle Ages / Gregorian Music (476-1450)

  4. Music of the Renaissance (1450-1600)

  5. Baroque music (1600-1750)

  6. Classical Music (1750-1820)

  7. Romantic Music (1820-1900)

  8. Nationalist Music (19th and 20th centuries)

  9. Contemporary Music of the 20th Century):

    1. stochastic

    2. concrete

So, the music made by "Cults" composers is called "Cult" because they studied musical forms in depth; In other words, cultured music has a written tradition, where its authors are known (at least from a certain historical stage) and the musicians who currently perform it with conventional instruments are professionals.


2) THE SYMPHONY


The musical forms (in terms of "Cult Music"), covers a wide variety among which stand out: masses, oratorios, concerts, sonatas, symphonies, symphonic poems, trios, opera, cantatas, etc.


When Haydn was born (March 31, 1732), the predominant musical formats were those proposed by the "Father of Music": Johann Sebastian Bach, who corresponds to the Baroque period. These formats were just to mention a few: cantata, concerto grosso, tocatta, fugue, minuet, etc.





Haydn was an Innovator, because he created the form of the Sonata (4 movements) that he later transferred to the Symphony and for this Innovation he is considered the "Father of the Symphony". From this point on, his students Mozart and Beethoven continued to compose symphonies in 4 movements.

It is important to emphasize that Haydn was the first and last classic (13th century) and that Beethoven (his student) is considered one of the first composers of the Romantic period (19th century).


In very summarized terms, and from the "Invention of Haydn" a Symphony is the translation of a Sonata to the orchestra.

A Sonata is a piece of music with several movements (usually 4) performed by a soloist or a small instrumental group and which receives its name from the structure of the first movement known as "sonata form".

The symphony is born from the application of the sonata form; however, Haydn's first symphonies were made in three movements and later in four.




3) THE SYMPHONY OF TOYS


Much has been written about the authorship of the "Toys Symphony", a work in three movements; for many years it was attributed to Haydn, however, some contemporary musicologists attribute it to Leopold Mozart father Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

The confusion is due to the fact that Haydn was Mozart's teacher, the latter affectionately called him "Papa Haydn"; Such was the influence of Haydn that Mozart's early works resemble Haydn's style so much that it is sometimes difficult to identify who the author is.


In my opinion, and after studying Haydn's music for 50 years, I would venture to say that the Toy Symphony does belong to Haydn, whose sense of humor was one of its great characteristics.

Let us remember that Haydn in his childhood belonged to the "Boys Singers of Vienna" and he was a jocker.

On one occasion, practicing a Cantata with his classmates in St. Stephen's Cathedral, he could not resist pulling out a pair of scissors from his pocket, and cutting the ponytail of the powdered wig of the boy in front of him.


4) VIDEO CLIP

Next, I invite you to click on the image below this text, to see the complete "Toy Symphony" (in three movements), by the "Romanian Youth Orchestra" conducted by Cristian Mandeal


FUENTES:



















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