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"The only medals are those given by posterity"


Unfortunately, violent death by murder has been a constant in the history of humanity that implies a serious social alteration and a profound human and emotional impact on the population, especially when it comes to a figure with political power and social. This type of crime has family, economic, and legal-criminal consequences that reflect the political, social, moral, and institutional situation of a state.

The forms of execution, the murderers, the victims, the causes and consequences, as well as other circumstances of the assassination, reveal many aspects of life in a country that is convulsed and agitated.

Currently we are witnessing how many contemporary nations face stages of instability or political decline, succession conflicts or internal struggles, factors that those who would have to add violent death.

Assassinations by SUCCESSION can happen for THREE reasons:


1) Official Assassination, like what Mexico experienced in the revolutionary era where presidents came and went, murdering each other like what happened to Venustiano Carranza.

Venustiano Carranza managed to unite the wills of the different revolutionary leaders against the counterrevolutionary dictatorship of General Victoriano Huerta (1913-1914), but, after a quick victory, he had to confront the demands of the two leaders agraristas who had supported him: Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. After consolidating his position, he convened a Constituent Congress in Querétaro from which the 1917 Constitution would emerge and which elected him President of the Republic (1917-1920), ending the phase heartbreaking of the Mexican Revolution.

Carranza's administration was characterized, first of all, by the efforts to pacify the country.

Carranza's natural successor was General Álvaro Obregón, but as the presidential replacement approached, Carranza changed his mind and appointed a civilian. The reaction was immediate. In 1920, Álvaro Obregón and the Sonoran generals Plutarco Elías Calles and Adolfo de la Huerta disavowed presidential authority through the Agua Prieta Plan. Carranza felt threatened and decided to transfer the government to Veracruz, but was ambushed in Tlaxcalaltongo, Puebla, and assassinated. Adolfo de la Huerta succeeded him temporarily and, once the elections were held, Álvaro Obregón (1920-1924) became president". (Great Biographies ).


2) Covert Assassination: poisoning, like the one that happened in the Vatican with the brief pontificate of just thirty-three days of John Paul I.

John Paul I was assassinated (poisoned) because his ideals of evangelical purity and poverty ran counter to the corruption of certain representatives of his State, who questioned his proposals that went against the extra-Vatican economic powers, such as the Propaganda Due Lodge (Secret lodge of Italian Freemasonry with clear connections to the Sicilian mafia, which ended in a scandal of international proportions).

When Michele Sindona (Italian banker, ex-con and member of the Propaganda Due), advised Paul Marcinkus (archbishop related to mafia activities, as well as the violent Masonic Due lodge and involved in the scandal after the bankruptcy of Banco Ambrosiano in Milan) sell the Banca Católica del Venetto, which gave soft loans for works of the Church, Monsignor Albino Luciani, Bishop of Venice, protested to Monsignor Benelli without result. Some time later, Luciani became Pope John Paul I and one of the first things he did was ask for an accounting of the Vatican's finances. At 33 days he died. (The Clarion)

It is necessary to shake off the imperial dust that has accumulated for centuries on Peter's chair", John XXIII


3) Preventive Assassination, as in the case of General Álvaro Obregón who owes much of the credit for having put an end to the revolutionary violence that shook the life of Mexico for ten dramatic years After standing out as one of the most skillful strategists on the battlefield, when he became president of the country, he showed himself to be an intelligent and energetic politician, initiating the institutionalization of the social conquests postulated by the Revolution and achieving important advances in foreign policy.

He was president of Mexico (1920 - 1924), and at the end of his term, Obregón retired to Sonora until 1927, when, at the request of Plutarco Elías Calles, Congress modified the Constitution to allow his re-election. Despite the protests, the attacks and a Catholic uprising over that decision, Álvaro Obregón accepted the challenge by running again in the elections of July 1, 1928, in which he won by a large majority.

However, Obregón would not go on to govern. While he was eating with his co-religionists in the La Bombilla restaurant, in San Ángel, in Mexico City, a Catholic fanatic named José de León Toral assassinated him. In this way Violently ended the life of the man who, after ten years of civil war, had tried to bring peace and stability to his homeland." (Great Biographies)

In addition to the assassinations by SUCCESSION, there are others caused by:

📌 Political mismanagement

📌 By accident

📌For personal revenge


Assassinations caused by an explosive mix of emotions sometimes tend to be the most dramatic, as happened to Abu al-Walid Ismail of Granada (1279 - 1325) who was the fifth Nasrid sultan of Granada (1313-1325).

Ismail proved to be a great tactician by his skill in dethroning Sultan Nasr in 1313; In addition, in the year 1316, during the battle near Porcuna, between the troops of the Infante Don Pedro and the Grenadines, he emerged victorious.

Ismail I, made perfect use of the years of peace that followed the signing of the truce with the Christians, to reorganize the kingdom, improving Islamic religious education, the administration of justice and public security. He also He dealt with the rescue of captives in Christian lands. In fiscal matters, his kingdom increased its income thanks to the taxes that the Jews of Granada had to pay, who were also forced to wear a distinctive sign and a dress that differentiated them from Muslims, measure that from that moment continued in force in the kingdom throughout the fourteenth century. Finally, the years of calm allowed Ismail I to raise a professional, well-armed and disciplined army, with which to be able to face with guarantees any attack coming from the abroad."

Ismail, a victorious Sultan of great military campaigns like the one he obtained in the city of Martos, with which dig his grave, since said city was sacked and its inhabitants brutally put to the sword. Without being conscious, Ismail during this battle, snatched his cousin Muhammad Ibn Ismail, a Christian slave with whom he had sentimental relations. His cousin did not forgive such a tyrannical action, so, a few days after the triumphant entry of the troops into Granada, in which the winner of Martos was acclaimed, Muhammad entered the palace until he reached the presence of the sultan, whom he stabbed to death right there in front of e

How ironic, Ismail was not a case of Assassination due to a succession issue, bad politics or accidental, it was simply due to personal revenge and this, dear reader, occurred on a day like today, July 8, but in the year 1325, almost seven hundred years ago and in the world, it seems that things have not changed.


"The only medals are those given by posterity"


Assassination is the murder of a person with an important position, usually a political or religious figure. The assassin usually has an ideological, political or revenge motivation, and the intention of causing a political crisis or eliminating an adversary that he considers an obstacle to carry out his plans.

It is useless to oppose destiny. No one, not even the most outstanding men, escapes its fateful design.

Assassinations have been a constant in the history of humanity. From César to Aldo Moro, there have been many leaders who have seen their lives cut short in a violent way. Analyze the reasons, who and why he committed, and its consequences, as well as narrating the details of his execution can be found in the book "Assassinations of history" which covers from antiquity to our days: César, Marat, Lincoln, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Tsar Nicholas II, Trotsky, Gandhi, Kennedy, Carrero Blanco, Aldo Moro.

It is still interesting to review the biographies of those whose life and death changed history forever and who won the medal of posterity, for which Allow me to highlight some of them below, which we remember today with a sigh of nostalgia.


1) Vidal Castro, Francisco. El Asesinato Político en Al-Andalus: La Muerte Violenta del Emir en la Dinastía Nazari (s.XIV). Universidad de Jaen.

2) Biografías y Vidas:

Ismail I de Granada (Abu al-Walid Ismail)

3) Reseña Histórica del Teatro en México:

4) EL CLARÍN / Propaganda Due, el libro que revela los secretos de la masonería italiana en Argentina

5) González -Trevijano, Pedro. Magnicidios de la historia. España. Galaxia Gütenberg:

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